Global Mindset and leadership behavior

Vania Neves, Patricia Tomei

Abstract


Global Mindset, set of attributes and characteristics that help global leadership to influence individuals, groups and organizations that are anywhere in the world has been described as a critical factor for organizational development. In order to identify factors that affect the Global Mindset of leaders, an on-line survey based on Konyu-Fogel (2011) model was applied to a sample of 163 leaders that work in positions that require international activities in organizations in twenty-two product lines (industries) in Africa, Asia,, South and North America, Europe and Middle East. We conclude that Global Mindset is responsible for 39,1% of variability on leadership behavior, confirming previous studies which identified that global leaders with high Global Mindset are more likely to exhibit leadership behaviors which present understanding on differences across cultures and countries in response to the global environment. Specifically related with demographic factors such as age, gender, number of foreign languages spoken, number of countries worked in and raised/lived in bilíngüe/multiethnic family, the results showed that they do not affect Global Mindset score, different from the factors such as local of employment and posicion. Finnaly, on assessment of organizational factors effects on Global Mindset, we identified a weak relationship under total number of employees, percentage of employees working overseas, location/country of headquarter’s and Global Mindset. On the other hand, product line and percentage of revenue from foreign operations significantly affect business leaders Global Mindset.

Keywords


Strategy;leadership;global mindset

References


Adler, N. J.; Bartholomew, S.(1992) Managing globally competent people. Academy of Management Executive, 6(3), 52.

Aggarwal, R. (2011) Developing a global mindset: Integrating demographics, sustainability, technology, and globalization. Journal of Teaching in International Business, v. 22, n. 1, p. 51-69.

Alon, I.; Higgins, J. M. (2005) Global leadership success through emotional and cultural intelligences. Business horizons, v. 48, n. 6, p. 501-512.

Ananthram, S.; Pearson, C.; Chatterjee, S. (2010) Do organizational reform measures impact on global mindset intensity of managers? Journal of Chinese Economic and Foreign Trade Studies, v. 3, n. 2, p. 146-168.

Arora, A.; Jaju, A.; Kefalas, A. G.; Perenich, T. (2004) An exploratory analysis of global managerial mindsets: a case of U.S. textile and apparel industry. v. 10, n. 3, p. 393-411.

Bartlett, C. A.; Beamish, P. W. (2014) Transnational Management: text, cases, and reading in cross-border management. Seventh edition. Singapore.

Beechler, S.; Javidan, M. (2007) Leading with a global mindset. Advances in international management, v. 19, p. 131-169.

Black, J. S.; Gregersen, H. B. (2000) High impact training: Forging leaders for the global frontier. Human Resource Management, v. 39, n. 2-3, p. 173-184.

Black, K. (2012) Business Statistics For Contemporary Decision Making. 7th Edition. US. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Blaess, D. A.; Hollywood, K. G.; Grant, C. (2012) Preparing the professoriate to prepare globally competent leaders. Journal of Leadership Studies, v. 6, n. 2, p. 88-94.

Bouquet, C.; Morrison, A.; Birkinshaw, J. (2009) International Attention and Multinational Enterprise Performance. Journal of International Business Studies, v. 40, n. 1, p. 108-131.

Bowen, D. E., Inkpen, A. C. (2009) Exploring the Role of “Global Mindset” in Leading Change in International Contexts. The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, v. 45, n. 2, p. 239-260.

Brake, T. (1997) The global leader: Critical factors for creating the world class organization. Chicago, IL: Irwing Professional Publishing.

Calof, J.; Beamish, P. (1994).The right attitude for international success. Business Quartely. v. 59(1), p. 105-110.

Calori, R., Johnson, G., & Sarmin, P. (1994) CEO's cognitive maps and the scope of the organization. Strategic Management Journal, 15 (6), 437-457.

ChabowskI, B. R. (2002)Developing global executives: the lessons of international experience: Morgan W. McCall, Jr. and George P. Hollenbeck, Harvard Business School Press, 259 pp., v. 13, n. 3, p. 419-422.

Clapp-Smith, R.; Wernsing, T. (2014) The transformational triggers of international experiences. Journal of Management Development, v. 33, n. 7, p. 662-679.

Cohen, S. L. (2010) Effective global leadership requires a global mindset. Industrial and Commercial Training, v. 42, n. 1, p. 3-10.

Crowne, K. A. (2013) Cultural exposure, emotional intelligence, and cultural intelligence: An exploratory study. International Journal of Cross Cultural Management, v. 13, n. 1, p. 5-22, April.

Dorfman, P.; Javidan, M.; Hanges, P.; Dastmalchian, A.; House, R. (2012) GLOBE: A twenty-year journey into the intriguing world of culture and leadership. Journal of World Business, v. 47, n. 4, p. 504–518, October.

Dreher, A. (2006) Does globalization affect growth. Evidence from a new index of globalization. Applied Economics, v. 38, n. 10, p. 1091-1110.

Earley, P. C.; Mosakowski, E. (2004) Cultural Intelligence. Harvard Business Review, v. 82, n. 10, p. 139-146.

Fatehi, K., Ghadar, F. (2014) A measure of international managers’ mindset. International Journal of Commerce and Management, v. 24, n. 4, p. 321-333.

Gabel, M.; Bruner, H. (2003) Global Inc.: an Atlas of the Multinational Corporation. New York, NY.

Goldsmith, M.; Greenberg, C. L.; Roberston, A.; Hu-Chan, M. (2003). Global Leadership, The Next Generation. HALL, P. NJ.

Gregersen, H. B.; Morrison, A. J.; Black, J. S. (1998) Developing leaders for the global frontier. Sloan Management Review, v. 40, n. 1, p. 21-32.

Gundling, E.; Hogan, T.; Cvitkovich, K. (2011) What is Global Leadership. Nicholas Brealey. US.

Gupta, A. K.; Govindarajan, V. (2002) Cultivating a global mindset. Academy of Management Executive, v. 16, n. 1, p. 116-126.

Gupta, A. K., Wang, H. (2008). Global enterprise 2020. Chief Executive, 234, 32-36.

Heenan, D. A.; Perlmutter, H. V. (1979) Multinational organizational development: A social architecture perspective. MA: Addison-Wesley.

House, R.; Javidan, M.; Hanges, P.; Dorfman, P. (2002) Understanding cultures and implicit leadership theories across the globe: an introduction to project GLOBE. Journal of World Business, v. 37, n. 1, p. 3-10.

House, R.; Javidan, M.; Dorfman, P. (2001) Project GLOBE: an introduction. Applied Psychology, v. 50, n. 4, p. 489-505.

Javidan, M.; Bowen, D. (2013) 'Global Mindset' of managers. Organizational dynamics, v. 42, n. 2, p. 145.

______. (2013) The ‘Global Mindset’ of managers: What it is, why it matters, and how to develop it. Organizational Dynamics, v. 42, n. 2, p. 145-155.

Javidan, M.; House, R.; Dorfman P.; Hanges, P; Luque, M. S. (2006). Conceptualizing and measuring cultures and their consequences: a comparative review of GLOBE's and Hofstede's approaches. Journal of international business studies, v. 37, n. 6, p. 897-914.

Javidan, M.; Hough, L.; Bullough, A. (2009) Conceptualizing and Measuring Global Mindset: Development of the Global Mindset Inventory. Glendale, AZ.

Javidan, M.; Walker L., J. (2013) Developing Your Global Mindset: The Handbook for Successful Global Leaders eBook: Mansour Javidan, Jennie L Walker [Kindle Edition]. Edina, MN: Beaver's Pond Press, Inc.

Jeannet, J. (2000) Managing with a global mindset. London: Pearson Education.

Kedia, B. L.; Mukherji, A. (1999) Global managers: developing a mindset for global competitiveness. Journal of World Business, v. 34, n. 3, p. 230-251.

Kefalas, A. G. (1998) Think globally, act locally. Thunderbird International Business Review, v. 40, n. 6, p. 547-562.

Kobrin, S. J. (1994) Is There a Relationship between a Geocentric Mindset and Multinational Strategy , v. 25, n. 3, p. 493-511.

Konyu-Fogel, G. (2011) Exploring the effect of global mindset on leadership behavior: An empirical study of business leaders in global organizations. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, Lawrence Technological University, Ann Arbor.

_____________ (2013). Global Skills and Competency Training for Developing Global Talent: Implications for International Human Resource Management. Journal of the North American Management Society, v. 7, n. 1, p. 13.

______________. (2014) 21st Century Sustainable Competitive Advantage: Critical Capabilities through Leadership and Organizational Development. Economics and Culture Scientific Journal, Riga, Latvia, v. Vol. 10 (1), p. 29-46.

Lane, H. W.; Maznevski, M.; Mendenhall, M. E.; McNett, J. (2004) The Blackwell handbook of global management: A guide to managing complexity. UK: Blackwell Publishing.

Laroche, M.; Pons, F.; Richard, M. (2009) The Role of Language in Ethnic Identity Measurement: A Multitrait-Multimethod Approach to Construct. The Journal of Social Psychology, 2009, 149(4), 513–539. Heldref Publications.

Leslie, J. B.; Dalton, M.; Ernst, C.; Deal, J. (2002) Managerial Effectiveness in a Global Context. North Carolin: Center for Creative Leadership.

Levy, O.; Beechler, S.; Taylor, S.; Boyacigiller, N. A. (2007) What We Talk about When We Talk about 'Global Mindset': Managerial Cognition in Multinational Corporations. Journal of International Business Studies, v. 38, n. 2, p. 231-258.

Liedtka, J. |(1991) Organizational value contention and managerial mindsets. Journal of Business Ethics, v. 10, n. 7, p. 543-557.

Lovvorn, A. S.; Chen, J.-S. (2011) Developing a global mindset: The relationship between an international assignment and cultural intelligence. International Journal of Business and Social Science, v. 2, n. 9, p. 275-283.

Mendenhall, M. E.; Osland, J. S.; Bird, A. Oddou, G. R.; Maznevski M. L.; Stevens, M.J.; Stahl, G. K. (2013) Global Leadership: Research, Practice and Development. New York: Taylor & Francis.

Mendenhall, M. E.; Reich, B. S; Osland, J. S.; Bird, A. (2012) Defining the “global” in global leadership. Journal of World Business, v. 47, n. 4, p. 493–503, October.

Mendenhall, M. E.; Osland, J. S.; Bird, A. Oddou, G. R.; Stevens, M.J. (2008) Specification of the content domain of the Global Competencies Inventory (GCI). The Kozai Working Papers Series.

Miriam, E.; Lisak, A.; Harush, R.; Glikson E.; Nouri, R.; Shokef, E. (2013). Going Global: Developing Management Students' Cultural Intelligence and Global Identity in Culturally Diverse Virtual Teams. Academy of Management Learning & Education, v. 12, n. 3, p. 330-355.

Morley, M. J.; Cerdin, J. L. (2010). Global management competencies: a theoretical foundation. Journal of Managerial Psychology, v. 25, n. 8, p. 829-844.

Morrison, A. J. (2000) Developing a global leadership model. Human Resource Management, v. 39, n. 2-3, p. 117-131.

Maak T., Pless, N. M. (2009) Business Leaders as citizens of the world: Advancing humanism on a global scale. Journal of Business Ethics, 88, 537-550.

Murtha, T., Lenway, S. A., Bagozzi, R. P. (1998) Global mindsets and cognitive shift in complex multinational corporations. Strategic Management Journal, 19, 97-114.

Nummela, N.; Saarenketo, S.; Puumalainen, K. (2004) A Global Mindset :A Prerequisite for Successful Internationalization? Canadian Journal of Administrative Sciences, v. 21, n. 1, p. 51-64.

Oddou, G.; Mendenhall, M. E.; Ritchie, J. B. (2000) Leveraging travel as a tool for global leadership development. Human Resource Management, v. 39, n. 2 3, p. 159-172.

Paul, H. (2000) Creating a global mindset. Thunderbird International Business Review, v. 42, n. 2, p. 187-200.

Paul, K.; Meyskens, M.; Robbins, S. (2011) Components of a global mindset: corporate social responsibility and cross-cultural sensitivity. Journal of International Business and Cultural Studies, v. 5, n. 1.

Perlmutter, H. V. (1969) The Tortuous Evolution of the Multinational Corporation. Columbia Journal of World Business, v. 4, n. 1, p. 9.

Prahalad, C. K.; Doz, Y. (1987) The multinational mission: Balancing local demands and global vision. New York, NY: Free Press.

PriceWaterhouseCoopers. PWC 17th Annual Global CEO Survey. The Desing Group PwC. UK. 2014.

Pucik, V.; Saba, T. (1998). Selecting and developing the global versus the expatriate manager: a review of the state-of-the-art. 21: 40 p.

Puck, J. F.; Kittler, M. G.; Wright, C. (2008) Does it really work? International journal of human resource management, v. 19, n. 12, p. 2182-2197.

Punnet, B. J.; Shenkar, O.(2004) Handbook for International Management Research. 2nd ed. Michigan, US: Michigan University.

Ranker, G.; Huang, D.; Mcleod, M. (2015) Navigating US and Chinese business cultures using global mindset leadership. Training & Development v. 2015, n. 75, p. 23-30.

Rhinesmith, S. H. (1996) A manager´s guide to globalization: six steps to success in a changing world. New York, NY: Irwing Publishing.

______. (2003) Basic components of a global mindset. In Goldsmith, M., Govidarajan, B., & Vicere, A. (Eds.) The many facets of leadership. Upper Saddler River, NJ: Financial Times Prentice Hall.

Robinson, D. A.; Harvey, M. (2008) Global leadership in a culturally diverse world. Management Decision, v. 46, n. 3, p. 466-488.

Rogers, E. M.; Blonski, D. (2010) The global leadership mindset. Chief Learning Officer, June, p. 18-21.

Sambharya, R. (1996) Foreign experience of top management teams and international diversification strategies of U.S. multinational corporations. Strategic Management Journal, 17, 739-746.

Sheridan, E. (2005) Intercultural leadership competencies for United States business leaders in the new millennium. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, University of Phoenix, Ann Arbor.

Story, J. S. P.; Barbuto, J. E; Luthans, F.; Bavaird, J. A. (2014). Meeting the Challenges of Effective International HRM: Analysis of the Antecedents of Global Mindset. Human Resource Management, v. 53, n. 1, p. 131-155.

Story, J. S. P.; Barbuto, J. E. (2011) Global Mindset: A Construct Clarification and Framework. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, v. 18, n. 3, p. 377-384.

Taylor, S.; Levy, O.; Boyacigiller, N. A; Beechler, S. (2008). Employee commitment in MNCs: Impacts of organizational culture, HRM and top management orientations. International Journal of Human Resource Management, v. 19, n. 4, p. 501-527.

Triandis, H. C. (2006) Cultural Intelligence in Organizations. Group & Organization Management, v. 31, n. 1, p. 20-26.

Trompenaars, f.; Hampden-Turner, C.(1998) Ridsing the waves of culture. 2nd ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 1998.

Tubbs, S. L.; Schulz, E. (2006) Exploring a Taxonomy of Global Leadership Competencies and Meta-competencies. The journal of American Academy of Business, Cambridge, v. 8, n. 2, p. 29.

Unit, E. I.(2010) "Global firms in 2020: The next decade of change for organizations and workers." Retrieved January, 20, 2015.

World Economic Forum - Global Agenda Outlook (2015). Switzerland.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Iberoamerican Journal of Strategic Management  e-ISSN: 2176-0756

Licença Creative Commons
Este obra está licenciado com uma Licença
Creative Commons Atribuição-NãoComercial-CompartilhaIgual 4.0 Internacional