Relationship between Entrepreneurial Orientation and Project Management Maturity in Brazilian Software Firms

Cristina Dai Prá Martens, Karoline Doro Alves Carneiro, Mauro Luiz Martens, Dirceu da Silva

Abstract


This paper aims to analyze the relationship between entrepreneurial orientation and project management maturity in software firms. Initially, the literature concerning both matters has been approached. Then, a conceptual model which suggests that the entrepreneurial orientation is positively related to the project management maturity, has been proposed. In order to evaluate this model, the Structural Equation Modeling technique has been adopted through the Partial Least Square method using a sample of 102 questionnaires given by managers of Brazilian software firms. The model was validated and the study hypothesis confirmed. The results of the study reveal that there is a positive relationship between entrepreneurial orientation and project management maturity in the surveyed firms. Thus, innovativeness, risk-taking and proactiveness exert a positive impact on the project management maturity, which is characterized by integration management, scope management, time management, cost management, quality management, human resources management, communications management, risk management and procurement management. The results collaborate with the theoretical discussions surrounding these subjects contributing to seal literature gap to combine entrepreneurship and project management. As managerial contributions, the study provides executives and managers to have a general view that the entrepreneurial orientation exerts beneficial impacts on the project management maturity.


Keywords


Entrepreneurial Orientation; Project Management Maturity; Entrepreneurship; Software Firms.

References


ABES, Associação Brasileira de Empresas de Sofware (2012a). Brazilian Software Market: scenario and trends, 2012. São Paulo: ABES. Retrieved 01 Jul 2015 from http://central.abessoftware.com.br/Content/UploadedFiles/Arquivos/2012_Publicacao_Mercado_ABES.pdf.

ABES, Associação Brasileira de Empresas de Sofware (2012b). Associados. Retrieved 13 Jun 2012 from http://www.abessoftware.com.br/associados/socios.

ABES. Associação Brasileira de Empresas de Sofware. (2015). Brazilian Software Market: scenario and trends, 2015. Retrieved 01 Jul 2015 from http://central.abessoftware.com.br/Content/UploadedFiles/Arquivos/Dados%202011/ABES-EstudoMercadoBrasileirodeSoftware-2015-Resumida-Port-Jun-2015.pdf.

Ajam, M. (2011). Entrepreneurship & Project Management - The Missing Link. Retrieved 17 Jul 2015 from http://www.scribd.com/doc/51369423/Entrepreneurship-Project-Management-The-Missing-Link.

Andersen, E. S, & Jessen, S. A. (2003). Project maturity in organizations. International Journal of Project Management, 21(6), 457-461.

Basso, O., Fayolle, A., & Bouchard, V. (2009). L’orientation entrepreneuriale : Histoire de la formation d’un concept. Revue Française de Gestion, 195, 175-192.

Brei, V. A., & Liberali Neto, G. (2006). O uso da técnica de modelagem em equações estruturais na área de marketing: um estudo comparativo entre publicações no Brasil e no exterior. Revista de Administração Contemporânea, 10(4), 131-151.

Byrne, B. M. (2010). Structural equation modeling with AMOS: basic concepts, applications, and programming. 2 ed. New York: Routledge.

Carneiro, K. D. A., Martens, C. D. P. (2012). Proposição de um modelo teórico para análise da relação entre maturidade em gerenciamento de projetos e orientação empreendedora. In: SGIT. Simpósio de Gestão da Inovação Tecnológica, 2012, Salvador - BA. Anais... Rio de Janeiro: ANPAD, 2012.

Carvalho, M. M. D., Laurindo, F. J. B., & Pessôa, M. S. D. P. (2003). Information technology project management to achieve efficiency in Brazilian companies. In: Kamel, S. (Ed.). Managing globally with information technology. 2003. Hershey: IRM Press, 260-271.

Carvalho, M. M., & Rabechini Jr., R. (2005). Construindo competências para gerenciar projetos. 2 ed. São Paulo: Atlas.

Carvalho, M. M., Rabechini Jr., R., Pessôa, M. S. D. P., &

Laurindo, F. J. B. (2005). Equivalência e completeza: análise de dois modelos de maturidade em gestão de projetos. Revista de Administração, 40(3), 289-300.

Chen, M. J., & Hambrick, D. C. (1995). Speed, stealth, and selective attack: how small firms differ from large firms in competitive behaviour. The Academy of Management Journal, 38(2), 453-482.

Chin, W.W. (2010). How to Write Up and Report PLS Analyses. In: Vinzi, V.E., Chin, W.W., Henseler, J., Wang, H. (Eds). Handbook of Partial Least Squares, pp.655-690. Berlin: Heidelberg.

Cleland, D. I., & Ireland, L. R. (2007). Gerenciamento de projetos. 2 ed. Rio de Janeiro: Editora LAB.

Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences. 2 ed. New York: Psychology Press.

Covin, J. G., & Lumpkin, G. T. (2011). Entrepreneurial orientation theory and research: reflections on a needed construct. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 35(5), 855-872.

Covin, J. G., & Slevin, D. P. (1991). A conceptual model of entrepreneurship as firm behavior. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 16(1), 7-25.

Covin, J. G., & Slevin, D. P. (1989). Strategic management of small firms in hostile and benign environments. Strategic Management Journal, 10(1), 75-87.

Cronbach, L. J., & Meehl, P. E. (1955). Construct Validity in Psychological Tests. Psychological Bulletin, 52, 281-302.

Dess, G. G., & Lumpkin, G. T. (2005). The role of entrepreneurial orientation in stimulating effective corporate entrepreneurship. Academy of Management Executive, 19(1), 147-156.

Faul, F., Erdfelder, E., Buchner, A., & Lang, A.G. (2009). Statistical Power Analyses Using G*Power 3.1: Tests for Correlation and Regression Analyses. Behavior Research Methods, 41(4), 1149-1160.

Fernandes, D. V. D. H., & Santos, C. P. (2008). Orientação Empreendedora: um estudo sobre as consequências do empreendedorismo nas organizações. RAE-eletrônica, 7(1), Art. 6.

Fincher, A., & Levin, G. (1997). Project management maturity model. Chicago: Project Management Institute.

Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of Marketing Research. 18(1), 39-50.

Freitas, H. M. R., Martens, C. D. P., Boissin, J. P., & Behr, A. (2012). Elementos para guiar ações visando à orientação empreendedora em organizações de software. Revista de Administração, São Paulo, 47(2), 163-179.

Gareis, R., & Huemann, M. (2007). Maturity models for the project-oriented company. In: Turner, J.R. (Ed.). Gower handbook of project management. 4 ed. Gower publishing limited, pp. 183-208.

George, B. A., & Marino, L. (2011). The epistemology of entrepreneurial orientation: conceptual formation, modeling, and operationalization. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 35(5), 989-1024.

Gordon, S. R., & Tarafdar, M. (2007). How do a company’s information technology competences influence its ability to innovate? Journal of Enterprise Information Management, 20(3), 271-290.

Götz, O., Liehr-Gobbers, K., & Krafft, M. (2010). Evaluation of Structural Equation Models Using the Partial Least Squares (PLS) Approach. In: Vinzi, V.E., Chin, W.W., Henseler, J., Wang, H. (Eds). Handbook of Partial Least Squares. pp. 691-711. Springer. Berlin: Heidelberg.

Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., Anderson, R. E., & Tatham, R. L. (2009). Análise multivariada de dados. 6 ed. Porto Alegre: Bookman.

Hair, J. F., Hult, G. T. M., Ringle, C. M., & Sarstedt, M. (2014). A Primer on Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM). Thousand Oaks: Sage.

Henseler, J., Ringle, C. M., & Sinkovics, R. R. (2009). The use of partial least squares path modeling in international marketing. Advances in International Marketing, 20, 277-319.

Hobday, M. (2000). The project-based organization: an ideal form for managing complex products and systems? Research Policy, 29(7-8), 871-893.

Julio, L. R.; Piscopo, M. R. (2013). Maturidade em Gestão de Projetos e Empreendedorismo Estratégico em Empresas do Setor Financeiro. Revista Gestão & Tecnologia, 13(3), 178-208.

Kerzner, H. (2009). Project management: a systems approach to planning, scheduling and controlling. 10 ed. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons.

__________. (2004). Gestão de projetos: as melhores práticas. 2 ed. São Paulo: Bookman.

Kuura, A. (2010). A policy for development of project management. Discussions on Estonian Economic Policy, XVIII, 139-155.

Kuura, A., Blackburn, R. A., Lundin, R. A. (2014). Entrepreneurship and projects – Linking segregated communities. Scandinavian Journal of Management, 30, 2014-230.

Lee, S. M., & Peterson, S. J. (2000). Culture, entrepreneurial orientation, and global competitiveness. Journal of World Business, 35(4), 401-416.

Lumpkin, G. T., Cogliser, C. C., & Schneider, D. R. (2009). Understanding and measuring autonomy: an entrepreneurial orientation perspective. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 33(1), 47-69.

Lumpkin, G. T., & Dess, G. G. (2001). Linking two dimensions of entrepreneurial orientation to firm performance the moderating role of environment and industry life cycle. Journal of Business Venturing, 16(5), 429-451.

Lumpkin, G. T., & Dess, G. G. (1996). Clarifying the entrepreneurial orientation construct and linking it to performance. The Academy of Management Review, 21(1), 135-172.

Lundin, R. A., Arvidsson, N., Brady, T., Ekstedt, E., Midler, C., & Sydow, J. (2015). Managing and Working in Project Society. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Martens, C. D. P., Freitas, H. M. R., & Boissin, J. (2010). Proatividade em empresas de software empreendedoras: a voz dos executivos. Gestão.Org, 8(3), p. 327-354.

Martens, C. D. P., Freitas, H. M. R., Boissin, J. P. (2011a). Risk-taking in software companies: a sector case study in Rio Grande do Sul. Revista de Administração, 46(3), 213-227.

Martens, C. D. P., Freitas, H. M. R., Boissin, J., & Behr, A. (2011b). Elementos da inovatividade no setor de software: estudo exploratório em organizações empreendedoras do Rio Grande do Sul. RAI: Revista de Administração e Inovação, 8(1), p. 248-279.

Mello, S. C. B., Júnior, F. G. P., Neto, A. F. S., & Lubi, L. H. O. (2006). Orientação empreendedora e competências de marketing no desempenho organizacional: um estudo em empresas de base tecnológica. Organizações &Sociedade, 13(36), 185-202.

Meredith, J. R., & Mantel Jr., S. J. (2008). Project management: a managerial approach. 7 ed. ed. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Miller, D. (1983). The correlates of entrepreneurship in three types of firms. Management Science, 29(7), 770-791.

________. (2011). Miller (1983) revisited: a reflection on EO research and some suggestions for the future. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 35(5), 873-894.

Miller, D., & Friesen, P. H. (1978). Archetypes of strategy formulation. Management Science, 24(9), 921-934.

Miller, D., & Friesen, P. H. (1982). Innovation in conservative and entrepreneurial firms: Two models of strategic momentum. Strategic management journal, 3(1), 1-25.

Moraes, R. D. O., & Kruglianskas, I. (2010). Projetos de TI: maturidade x desempenho. Revista de Administração e Inovação, 7(2), 22-33.

Moraes, R. D. O., Laurindo, F. J. B. (2008). Multidimensionalidade da maturidade em gestão de projetos de sistemas de informação. Produto & Produção, 9(2), 3-20.

Paulk, M. C., Weber, C. V., & Chrissis, M. B. (1995). The Capability Maturity Model: guidelines for improving the software process. Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley.

PMI, Project Management Institute. (2003). Organizational project management maturity model (OPM3®). U.S.A.: PMI.

________. (2009). A guide to the Project Management body of knowledge (PMBOK Guide) 5 ed. Philadelphia: PMI.

________. (2013). A guide to the Project Management body of knowledge (PMBOK Guide) 5 ed. Philadelphia: PMI.

Rabechini Jr., R. (2005). O gerente de projetos na empresa. São Paulo: Altas.

Rabechini Jr., R., Carvalho, M. M. D., & Laurindo, F. J. B. (2002). Fatores críticos para implementação de gerenciamento por projetos: o caso de uma organização de pesquisa. Revista Produção, 12(2), 28-41.

Rauch, A., Wiklund, J., Lumpkin, G. T., & Frese, M. (2009). Entrepreneurial orientation and business performance: an assessment of past research and suggestions for the future. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 33(3), 761-787.

Ringle, C. M., Silva, D., & Bido, D. (2014). Structural Equation Modeling with the Smartpls. REMark - Brazilian Journal of Marketing, 13(2), 56-73.

Ringle, C. M., Wende, S., & Will, A. (2005). SmartPLS 2. Hamburg: SmartPLS. Retrieved 01 Jun 2015 from .

Roselino, J. E. (2007). Software – Relatório Preliminar Setorial. FINEP – Rede DPP 2007. Available from: . (accessed 20.01.08).

Russo, R. D. F. S. M., & Sbragia, R. (2007). Tendência empreendedora do gerente: uma análise de sua relevância para o sucesso de projetos inovadores. Gestão & Produção, 14(3), 581-593.

Semolic, B., & Kovac, J. (2008). Project management in connection to entrepreneurship and network organizations. In: Cleland, D., Ireland, L. (Eds.). Project manager’s handbook: applying best practices across global industries. McGraw-Hill Professional, pp. 407-426.

Shane, S., & Venkataraman, S. (2000). The promise of entrepreneurship as a field of research. The Academy of Management Review, 25(1), 217-226.

Shenhar, A. J., & Dvir, D. (2007). Reinventing project management: the diamond approach to successful growth and innovation. Harvard Business Press.

Skulmoski, G. J. (2001). Project maturity and competence interface. Cost Engineering, 43(6), 11-18.

Söderlund, J. (2005). Developing project competence: empirical regularities in competitive project operations. International Journal of Innovation Management, 9(4), 451-480.

Tenenhaus, M., Vinzi, V. E., Chatelin, Y. M., & Lauro, C. (2005). PLS path modeling. Computacional Statistics & Data Analysis, 48, 159-205.

Thieme, R. J., Song, X. M., & Shin, G. C. (2003). Project management characteristics and new product survival. Journal of Product Innovation Management, 20(2), 104-119.

Venkatraman, N. (1989). Strategic orientation of business enterprises: the construct, dimensionality, and measurement. Management Science, 35(8), 942-963.

Wales, W., Monsen, E., & McKelvie, A. (2011). The organizational pervasiveness of entrepreneurial orientation. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 35(5), 895-923.

Wetzels, M., Odekerken-Schöder, G., & Oppen, C. et al. (2009). Using PLS path modeling for assessing hierarchical construct models: guidelines and empirical illustration. MIS Quarterly, 33(1), 177-195.

Wiklund, J. (1999). The sustainability of the entrepreneurial orientation-performance relationship. Entrepreneurship: Theory & Practice, 24(1), 37-48.

Wiklund, J., & Shepherd, D. A. (2005). Entrepreneurial orientation and small business performance: a configurational approach. Journal of Business Venturing, 20(1), 71-91.

Zahra, S.A. (1993). A conceptual model of entrepreneurship as firm behaviour: a critique and extension. Entrepreneurship: Theory & Practice, 17(4), 5-21.

Zahra, S. A., & Covin, J.G. (1995). Contextual influences on the corporate entrepreneurship – performance relationship: a longitudinal analysis. Journal of Business Venturing, 10(1), 43-58.


Full Text: PDF/ENGLISH (Português (Brasil))

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

Iberoamerican Journal of Strategic Management  e-ISSN: 2176-0756