Strategy in the 20th Century: Explanations from History

Leonardo Silveira Conke

Abstract


In this essay, we argue that an historical perspective helps to understand some of the strategic choices made by organizations. More specifically, the purpose here is to describe the great influence of historical events (related to economy, politics, technological advancement etc.) on the creation, acceptance, spreading and / or establishment of the strategic theories and tools developed since the beginning of the 20th century. Texts that usually discuss management and history outline only the Industrial Revolution or the transition from feudalism to capitalism, underestimating other historical forces that offer additional explanations to the evolution of strategic thinking. As a result of an extensive bibliographical research, we were able to identify four periods where the strategic theories developed reveal suitable responses to the challenges created by the environment: in the first one (1900-1938), strategy is concerned with organization and control of business activities, resembling the ideas developed by Scientific Administration; in the second period (1939-1964), strategic planning is formalized and the area is broadly recognized; the next decades (1965-1989) are characterized by competition and uncertainty, making strategy focus on problems emerged from the outside; finally, on the turn of the century (1990-2010), the unlimited information availability enhances the need for strategists’ conceptual and practical knowledge. Also, as a final contribution, we suggest two possible trends to the future of strategy.

Keywords


Strategy History; Strategy Evolution; Strategic Theory.

References


Aldrich, H. E., &Pfeffer, J. (1976).Environments of Organizations.Annual Review of Sociology, 2, 79-105.

Andrews, K. (1977). El concepto de estrategia de la empresa. Ediciones Universidad de Navarra S.A.: Barcelona.

Arolas, E. E..& Guevara, F. G. L. (2012). Towards and integrated crowdsourcing definition. Journal of Information Science, 38 (2), 189-200.

Bain, J. S. (1954). Economies of Scale, Concentration, and the Condition of Entry in Twenty Manufacturing Industries.The American Economic Review, 44 (1), 15-39.

Bain, J. S. (1951). Relation of Profit Rate to Industry Concentration: American Manufacturing, 1936-1940. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 65(3), 293-324.

Bales, C., Chatterjee, C., Gogel, D., &Puri, A. (2000).The microeconomics of industry supply.The McKinsey Quarterly, June, 21-28Recuperado de: http://www.kellogg.northwestern.edu/faculty/vohra/ftp/miin00.pdf

Barnard, C. I. (1938). The Functions of the Executive.Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Barney, J. (1991). Firm Resources and Sustained Competitive Advantage. Journal of Management, 17 (1), 99-120.

Barret, F. J., &Srivastva, S. (1991). History as a Mode of Inquiry in Organizational Life: a Role for Human Cosmology. HumanRelations, 44 (3), 231-254.

Barros, J. A. (2004). Os Campos da História: uma introdução às especialidades da História. Revista HISTEDBR On-line, 16, 17-35.

Bedeian, A. G., &Phillips, C. R. (1990).Scientific Management and Stakhanovism in the Soviet Union: a Historical Perspective. International Journal of Social Economics, 17(10), 28-35.

Berle Jr., A. A., &Means, G. C. (1950).The Modern Corporation and Private Property.New York: Macmillan.

Booth, C., &Rowlinson, M. (2006).Management and organizational history: prospects. Management &OrganizationalHistory, 1 (1), 5-30.

Borges, V. P. (1993).O Que é História.São Paulo: Brasiliense.

Bowman, E.H., Singh, H., & Thomas, H. (2002).The Domain of Strategic Management: History and Evolution InA. Pettigrew, H. Thomas, & R. Whittington. Handbook of Strategy and Management (cap. 2, pp. 31-51). London: Sage Publications.

Bradfield, R., Wright, G., Burta, G., Cairns, G. van der Heijden, K. (2005). The origins and evolution of scenario techniquesin long range business planning. Futures 37, 795-812.

Castells, M. (1999).A era da informação: economia, sociedade e cultura, v. 1. São Paulo: Paz e Terra.

Chandler, A. D. (1994). The competitive performance of U.S. industrial enterprises since the Second World War.Business History Review, 68 (1), 1-72.

Chandler, A. D., &Redlich, F. (1961).Recent Developments in American Business Administration and Their Conceptualization.Business History Review, 35, 1-27.

Clark, P.,&Rowlinson, M. (2004).The treatment of history in organization studies: towards an ‘historic turn’? Business History, 46 (3), 331-352.

Costa, A. S. M., Barros, D. F., &Martins, E. M. (2010). Perspectiva Histórica em Administração: Novos Objetos, Novos Problemas, Novas Abordagens. Revista de Administração de Empresas, 50 (3), 288-299.

Davenport, T. H., &Prusak, L. (2003). Conhecimento Empresarial: como as organizações gerenciam o seu capital intelectual, 14ª ed. Rio de Janeiro: Elsevier.

Davenport, T. H., & Volpel, S. C. (2001). The rise of knowledge towards attention management.Journal of Knowledge Management, 5 (3), 212-221.

Fayol, H. (1930). Administration industrielle et générale.Paris: Dunod.

Foster, L.W. (1985). From Darwin to Now: The Evolution of Organizational Strategies. Journalof Business Strategies, 5, 94-98.

Freitas-Filho, A. (1989). História Econômica e História de Empresa: Algumas Reflexões Metodológicas. Ensaios FEE, 10 (1), 168-177.

Freeman, R. E. (1984). Strategic Management: a Stakeholder Approach. Boston: Pitman.

Galambos, L. (2005). Recasting the Organizational Synthesis: Structure and Process in the Twentieth and Twenty-First Centuries.Business History Review, 79 (1), 1-38.

Ghemawat, P. (2002). Competition and Business Strategy in Historical Perspective.Business History Review, 76 (1), 37-74.

Gras, N.S.B.(1936). Fifty Years of Development in Industrial Organization. Business Historical Society: Bulletin of the Business Historical Society, 10 (1), 7-15.

Guth, W. (1980).Corporate Growth Strategies.Journal of Business Strategy, 1 (2), 56-62.

Hannan, M. T., & Freeman, J. (1977).The Population Ecology of Organizations.The American Journal of Sociology, 82 (5), 929-964.

Hawken, P., Lovins, A., &Lovins, L. H. (1999).Capitalismo Natural. São Paulo: Cultrix.

Hobsbawm, E. (2008). A Era dos Extremos: o breve século XX (1914-1991), 2ª ed. São Paulo: Companhia das Letras.

Howell, C. (1995). Toward a History of Management Thought.Business and Economic History, 24 (1), 41-50.

Johnson, G., Langley, A., Melin, L., &Whittington, R. (2007).Strategy as Practice: Research Directions and Resources. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Jouvenel, B. (1965). Futuribles.RAND’s International Seminar 1964. Recuperado de http://www.rand.org/em janeiro de 2013.

Kaplan, R. S., & Norton, D. (1997).A estratégia em ação: balancedscorecard. Rio de Janeiro: Campus.

Kaplan, R. S., & Norton, D. (1992).The Balanced Scorecard – Measures that Drive Performance. Harvard Business Review. Jan-Fev, 71-80.

Kipping, M. (1997).Consultancies, institutions and the diffusion of Taylorism in Britain, Germany and France, 1920s to 1950s.Business History, 39 (4), 67-83.

Kor, Y. Y., &Mahoney, J. T. (2004).Edith Penrose’s (1959) Contributions to the Resource-based View of Strategic Management.Journal of Management Studies, 41 (1), 183-191.

Larner, R. J. (1966). Ownership and Control in 200 Largest Non-Financial Corporations, 1929 and 1963. American Economic Review,56 (4), 777-787.

Meyer, J. W., &Rowan, B. (1977).Institutionalized Organizations: Formal Structure as Myth and Ceremony.The American Journal of Sociology, 83 (2), 340-363.

Miles, R.E., Snow, C.C., Mathews, J.A., Miles, G., &Coleman Jr., H.J. (1997).Organizing in the Knowledge Age: Anticipating the Cellular Form.Academy of Management Executive, 11 (4), 7-24.

Mintzberg, H., Ahlstand, B., &Lampel, J. (2000).Safári da Estratégia. Porto Alegre: Bookman.

Morgan, S. L. (2006). Transfer of Taylorist ideas to China, 1910-1930s. Journal of Management History, 12 (4), 408-424.

Motta, F. C. P., &Bresser-Pereira, L. C. (1980).Introdução à Organização Burocrática.São Paulo: Editora Brasiliense.

Motta, F.C.P. (1998). Teoria Geral da Administração. São Paulo: Pioneira.

Nelson, D. (1974). Scientific Management, systematic management, and labor, 1880-1915.Business HistoryReview, 48 (4), 479-500.

Nonaka, I.;Takeuchi, H. (1997). Criação de Conhecimento na Empresa : como as empresas japonesas geram a dinâmica da inovação. Rio de Janeiro: Campus.

Parmar, B. L., Freeman, R. E.,Wicks, A. C., Harrison, J. S., Colle, S., &Purnell, L. (2010).Stakeholder Theory: The State of the Art. The Academy of Management Annals, 4 (1), 403-445.

Penrose, E. T.(1959). The theory of the growth of the firm. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Pezet, A. (2009). The history of the French tableau de bord (1885-1975): evidence from the archives. Accounting Business and Financial History, 19 (2), 103-125.

Porter, M. E. (1985). Competitive Advantage: creating and sustaining superior performance. New York: Free Press.

Porter, M. E. (1980) Competitive Strategy: techniques for analyzing industries and competitors. New York: Free Press.

Porter, M. E.,&Reinhardt, F.L. (2007). Grist: A Strategic Approach to Climate, Harvard Business Review, 85 (10), 22-25.

Prahalad, C. K, & Hamel, G. (1990). The Core Competence of the Corporation, Harvard Business Review, May-June, 78-90.

Resende, C. (2007). História Econômica Geral. 9ª Ed. São Paulo: Contexto.

Sasaki, S. (1992).The introduction of scientific management by the Mitsubishi Electric Engineering Co. and the formation of an organised scientific management movement in Japan in the 1920s and 1930s.Business History, 34 (2), 12-27.

Sears, M. (1956).The American Business Man at the Turn of the Century.Business History Review, 30 (4), 382-443.

Senge, P., Smith, B., Kruschwitz, N., Laur, J., & Schley, S. (2009). A Revolução Decisiva: como indivíduos e organizações trabalham em parceria para criar um mundo sustentável. Rio de Janeiro: Elsevier.

Stevens, M. (2001).Extreme Management: What They Teach at Harvard Business School’s Advanced Management Program. New York: Warner Bros, Inc.

Tedlow, R.S., Bettcher, K.E., Purrington, C.A. (2003). The Chief Executive Officer of the Large American Industrial Corporation in 1917.Business HistoryReview, 77(4), 687-701.

Vargas, N. (1985). Gênese e Difusão do Taylorismo no Brasil. In ANPOCS, Ciências Sociais Hoje(cap.5, pp.155-189). São Paulo: Cortez.

Vicentino, C. (1997). História Geral. São Paulo: Scipione.

Vizeu, F. (2010). Potencialidades da Análise Histórica nos Estudos Organizacionais Brasileiros. Revista de Administração de Empresas, 50 (1), 37-47.

Wack, P. (1985a). Scenarios: Unchartedwatersahead. Harvard Business Review,63(5), 73-89.

Wack, P. (1985b). Scenarios: Shooting the rapids. Harvard Business Review, 63 (6), 139-150.

Wernerfelt, B. (1984). A Resourced-Based View of the firm.Strategy Management Journal, 5 (2), 171-180.

Wexler, M. N. (2011). Reconfiguring the sociology of the crowd: exploring crowdsourcing.International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, 31 (1), 6-20.

Whittington, R. (2006). Completing the Practice Turn in Strategy Research.Organization Studies, 27 (5), 613-634.

Whittington, R. (1996). Strategy as Practice.Long Range Planning, 29 (5), 731-735.

Zald, M. (1996).More Fragmentation?Unfinished business linking the social sciences and the humanities.Administrative Science Quarterly, 41 (2), 251-261.


Full Text: PDF (Português (Brasil))

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

Iberoamerican Journal of Strategic Management  e-ISSN: 2176-0756